How to Get The Best Results From Planting

Massey Ferguson Destin Africa
A planter pulled by a Massey Ferguson tractor is pictured at work on a large farm.

The planting season is in full swing. Some farmers have already completed this major task. Others are at work in the fields. There are also those who are waiting to make sure of the start of the rains is with us!

If you have not already planted to help achieve the full potential of the planter make the following mechanical checks before you go into the field to minimize downtime  and delays, so full advantage of the critical window for planting is taken.

Clean the planter

Check and lubricate all chains and sprockets, grease all the greasing points then check and grease all the bearings.

Check all the drive wheels and drive lines are working freely and are not rusted or stiff

Clean and lubricate the seed and fertilizer drives and metering units and replace any defective parts

Check the seed and fertilizer tubes are in good condition and are not blocked and replace as necessary.

Check the disc openers and tynes (if applicable) are all in good condition and replace those that are worn out. This very important as it gives accurate seed placement.

Check the correct alignment of coulters in relation to the planter units and press wheels

Then you must understand the seed companies recommendations off the seed you have purchased, so you know the recommended planting depth and inter-row spacing and then in conjunction with the manufacturers owner’s manual prepare the calibration of planters for seed and fertilizer placement.

The right plant population per acre, or hectare ensures that whilst competing for nutrients and sunlight, the plants offer each other healthy support for maximum yields. For example if the seed supplier recommends a planting depth of three centimeters with inter-row spacing of 23 centimeters between plants, the owner’s manual will provide all the necessary information to calibrate the planter to achieve this, by giving the correct seed plate and appropriate settings of the drive gears of the planter. 

The rate of fertilizer plays a key role in achieving a good crop. Accordingly, the granular size of fertilizer plays a role in this and should also be calibrated to meet the desired kilos per acre, or hectare as recommended by an agronomist or your seed and fertilizer supplier. This is achieved by adjusting drive gears as per the owner manual and must be done in conjunction with above ground practical testing to ensure that the planter delivers the required amount.

After calibration of the fertilizer and seed, the placement of fertilizer should be set so it is just below, or to one side of the seed to avoid burning of the seed, through direct contact with the seed as  germination and the soil moisture absorbs the essential elements given by the fertilizer. The prevention of burning of the seeds is important as it is a binary action and if burning occurs, the seed will not produce a plant!

The depth of planting will require fine adjustment in the field when you start planting as the soil condition does influence this.

During planting it is important to follow the lubrication instructions as per the owners handbook and hourly greasing regime and importantly the use of graphite powder in the seed to lubricate the planting metering mechanism.

By going through these steps before planting, the yield limiting factors will be minimized and the plant will be able to map out a good yield potential in the early growth stages which contributes towards a good potential harvest. Afterwards, through careful crop husbandry combined with sufficient rainfall the farmer will be rewarded with profitable results.

By Fergus Robley, the General Manager, FMD East Africa, the Massey Ferguson distributor.